Blair-Clinton Poll

A First Glimpse At the Poll

In November and December 2012, GfK (formerly Knowledge Networks) conducted the National and Regional Issues Survey on behalf of the Blair Center and Clinton School at the University of Arkansas. A total of 3,606 Americans were interviewed, with a median response time of 21 minutes. To allow for comparisons by region and race/ethnicity, a stratified sample was selected from GfK’s Knowledge Panel. In total, the sample includes 1,792 respondents from Southern states (819 white respondents, 408 African-Americans, and 565 Latinos and Latinas) and 1,814 respondents who live in the continental United States outside the South (834 whites, 435 African-Americans, and 545 Latinos and Latinas). The survey was conducted in both English and Spanish, and approximately half of the Latino and Latina respondents completed the survey in each language.

Though the Blair Center-Clinton School Poll in its entirety covers a range of issues regarding gender and race relations, regional distinctiveness, as well as policy preferences, this report highlights some of the initial findings related to significant current events. . In particular, it provides a first glimpse into the 2012 presidential election, beliefs about Romney’s religion, credit for bin Laden’s death, opinions surrounding student loan debt, and hypothetical vote choices in 2016. More detailed findings reports will be released in weeks and months to come.

Barack Obama vs. Mitt Romney

Approximately half of the registered voters surveyed report that they voted for Barack Obama in the 2012 presidential election, while 42% say they voted for Mitt Romney. A large gender gap exists in presidential vote choice (Figure1). Men are more likely to have voted for Romney (46%), while women were more likely to have supported the president’s bid for re-election (56%).

Figure 1: 2012 Presidential Vote Choice by Gender

In the 2012 Presidential election, who did you vote for? Refusals not shown. N = 2407

Not surprisingly, an enormous partisan gap emerges with respect to the 2012 presidential election (Figure 2). 92% of Democrats, 40% of independents, and 7% of Republicans voted for Barack Obama. Conversely, 88% of Republicans, 36% of independents, and 4% of Democrats voted for the former Massachusetts governor.

Figure 2: 2012 Presidential Vote Choice by Partisan Identification

In the 2012 Presidential election, who did you vote for? Refusals not shown. N = 2407

The gender gap is apparent even within partisan groups. Among Democrats, women are slightly more likely than men to have voted to re-elect President Obama (94% compared to 91%), while men are slightly more likely than women to have voted for another candidate (5% compared to 0.4%). Among Republicans, support for the president is remarkably higher among women (11%) than among men (4%). Obama won more support among independent men (44%) than women (36%). In order to visually demonstrate the differences between women and men, the so called “Gender-Gaps,” the following figures show the difference in the percentage of women voting for a particular candidate minus the percentage of men voting for the same candidate. As a result, a positive number indicates that a greater percentage of women voted for a particular candidate compared to the percentage of men. A value of zero indicates that the percentage of women and men voting for a particular candidate is the same while a negative number indicates that a greater percentage of men voted for a particular candidate compared to women.

Figure 3: Gender Gap in 2012 Presidential Vote Choice by Partisan Identification

In the 2012 Presidential election, who did you vote for? Gender gap calculated as women – men. Refusals not shown. N = 2407

The vote share of each candidate also differs by race and ethnicity (Figure 4). Mitt Romney won the support of most whites (52%) but only a quarter of Latinos and Latinas (26%) and a scant 2% of African-Americans. Meanwhile, President Obama was supported by an overwhelming majority of African-Americans (93%), almost two-thirds of Latinos and Latinas (63%), but only a minority of whites (42%).

Figure 4: 2012 Presidential Vote Choice by Race/Ethnicity

In the 2012 Presidential election, who did you vote for? Refusals not shown. N = 2407

The gender gap apparent at the national level is also apparent among whites and Latinos and Latinas (Figure 5). White women are more likely than white men to have voted for President Obama (47% compared to 36%), while white men are more likely than white women to have supported Romney over Obama (55% compared to 48%). Latinas are more likely than Latinos to have supported Obama over Romney (65% versus 60%), but more Latinos than Latinas supported Romney (29% versus 24%).

Figure 5: Gender Gap in 2012 Presidential Vote Choice by Race/Ethnicity

In the 2012 Presidential election, who did you vote for? Gender gap calculated as women – men. Refusals not shown. N = 2407

Support for Mitt Romney was higher in the South than among non-Southerners (Figure 6). 47% of Southerners voted for the former Massachusetts governor, while 40% of respondents outside the South backed Romney over Obama. Conversely, 52% of whites, African-Americans, and Latinos and Latinas outside the south cast their ballots for Obama, while only 48% of Southern white, African-American, and Latino and Latina voters supported Obama’s re-election bid.

Figure 6: 2012 Presidential Vote Choice by Region

In the 2012 Presidential election, who did you vote for? Refusals not shown. N = 2407

Nationally, women were more likely to have voted for Obama than Romney. This difference is driven mainly by individuals outside the South (Figure 7). Almost 60% of women but only 45% of men in non-Southern states backed the president. Conversely, women outside the South were less likely to have supported Romney than were men in non-Southern states (35% compared to 45%). Among Southerners, however, the gender gap disappears. Men and women in Southern states were equally likely to have backed Obama and Romney. According to Angie Maxwell, “this finding supports a trend that started in 2004, when southern women, once considered a major contributor to the national gender gap, shifted their allegiance to Republican candidates.”

Figure 7: Gender Gap in 2012 Presidential Vote Choice by Region

In the 2012 Presidential election, who did you vote for? Gender gap calculated as women – men. Refusals not shown. N = 2407

The differences between the South and non-south are even greater if we look only at white respondents (Figure 8). While 65% of white Southerners backed Romney, only 47% of whites in non-Southern states voted for the former Massachusetts governor. 46% of whites outside the South voted for Obama, but only 32% of whites in Southern states supported Obama’s candidacy. Among African-Americans and Latinos and Latinas, regional differences are statistically insignificant. This demonstrates, as Maxwell notes, that “southern political distinctiveness is primarily driven by white voting behavior.”

Figure 8: Regional Gap in 2012 Presidential Vote Choice by Race/Ethnicity

In the 2012 Presidential election, who did you vote for? Regional gap calculated as non-South – South. Refusals not shown. N = 2407

Is Mitt Romney a Christian?

Overall the survey results indicate that white, African-American, and Latino/a Americans are confused about Mitt Romney’s religious beliefs. 37% believe that Mitt Romney is Christian, an almost equal proportion (38%) don’t know whether Mitt Romney is a Christian. Large differences emerge by gender, party identification, socioeconomic status, and race and ethnicity.

Men are more likely than women to believe that Mitt Romney is Christian (Figure 9). 40% of men say that the former Massachusetts governor is Christian, while only 34% of women say this. 42% of women but only 33% of men don’t know whether the Romney family’s religion is Christian. <>

Figure 9: Mitt Romney is Christian by Gender

Do you believe that Mitt Romney is a Christian? Refusals not shown. N = 3606

A large partisan gap emerges between Republicans and others (Figure 10). Over half of Republicans describe the Massachusetts governor as Christian, while only 28% of Democrats and 26% of Independents do so. Almost half of Democrats and Independents (44% and 46%, respectively) – yet only one in four Republicans – don’t know if Romney is a Christian.

Figure 10: Mitt Romney is Christian by Party Identification

Do you believe that Mitt Romney is a Christian? Refusals not shown. N = 3606

Respondents with higher socioeconomic status are more likely to believe that the Republican presidential candidate is Christian. Individuals who live in households with higher income (Figure 11), as well as individuals with higher levels of education (Figure 12) are more likely to believe that Mitt Romney is Christian.

Figure 11: Mitt Romney is Christian by Household Income

Do you believe that Mitt Romney is a Christian? Refusals not shown. N = 3606

Figure 12: Mitt Romney is Christian by Education

Do you believe that Mitt Romney is a Christian? Refusals not shown. N = 3606

Large racial differences emerge with respect to Mitt Romney’s religion (Figure 13). Almost half of whites (45%) yet less than one in five African-Americans (15%) or Latinos/Latinas (20%) believe that Mitt Romney is Christian. According to Dr. Dowe “The findings that African Americans question the authenticity of Romney’s Christianity is consistent with the continued influence of conservative theology that dominates much of African American religious thought.” More than one in three African-Americans (36%) do not believe that Mitt Romney’s religion can be described as Christian; smaller numbers of whites (20%) and Latinos and Latinas (30%) believe Romney is not Christian. Almost half of African-Americans and Latinos and Latinas (47% and 49%, respectively) don’t know whether Mitt Romney is Christian.

Figure 13: Mitt Romney is Christian by Race/Ethnicity

Do you believe that Mitt Romney is a Christian? Refusals not shown. N = 3606

Belief that Romney is Christian is related to voting for him (Figure 14). 59% of respondents who say that Romney is Christian cast their ballots for the former Massachusetts governor. 72% of respondents who do not believe Romney is Christian and 69% of respondents who are uncertain if Romney’s religious beliefs are Christian voted for Barack Obama. This is hardly surprising, given the relationship between opinions about Romney’s religious beliefs, on the one hand, and race and partisanship, on the other.

Figure 14: 2012 Presidential Vote Choice by Mitt Romney is Christian

Do you believe that Mitt Romney is a Christian? Refusals not shown. N = 3606

Who Killed Bin Laden?

On May 1, 2011, a Navy SEAL team, following orders from President Obama, assaulted a compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan, which resulted in the death of Osama bin Laden. Americans heralded his death as a positive development in the decade-old war on terror and overwhelmingly approved the military raid and the decision to kill bin Laden rather than capture him alive. Immediately after the announcement of bin Laden’s death, Americans credited military personnel, government intelligence agencies, and Presidents Bush and Obama for the killing the world’s most wanted man. Eighteen months later, credit for his death remains fairly diffuse (Figure 15).

White, African-American, and Latinos and Latinas think that the Navy Seal Team who conducted the raid deserves about 44% of the credit for bin Laden’s death. President Obama and the U.S. intelligence agencies are given– on average – 23% and 22% of the credit for the terrorist’s death. The remaining proportion of credit is fairly evenly divided between former President George W. Bush (4%), Secretary of State Clinton (3%), and another individual or group (3%). Mitt Romney is credited with next to no credit (mean of 0.77%), which is not surprising given his lack of official affiliation with the federal government.

Figure 15: Credit for Bin Laden’s Death

How much credit do you give to each of the following people or groups for the death of Osama Bin Laden? Mean values shown. N = 3606

Large differences emerge when the mean values are separated by race and ethnicity (Figure 16). Whites, on average, think that the Navy SEAL team deserves almost half the credit, while Latinos and Latinas and African-Americans think that military personnel deserve less credit (31% and 27%, respectively) and give more credit to Obama than do whites (45% and 31%, respectively, compared to 18%).

Figure 16: Credit for Bin Laden’s Death by Race/Ethnicity

How much credit do you give to each of the following people or groups for the death of Osama Bin Laden? Mean values shown. N = 3606

Small, but significant, differences emerge when the mean values are examined by region (Figure 17). Respondents in the South give slightly more credit to George W. Bush (5% compared to 3%) and Mitt Romney (1.11% compared to 0.61%). Respondents outside the South given more credit to U.S. Intelligence agencies (23% compared to 20%).

Figure 17: Credit for Bin Laden’s Death by Region

How much credit do you give to each of the following people or groups for the death of Osama Bin Laden? Mean values shown. N = 3606

Within each region, racial gaps emerge regarding who should be credited with the death of bin Laden’s death (Figure 18). African-Americans and in the South give more credit to Obama than do Latinos and Latinas or whites (45%, 26%, and 15%, respectively). Latinos and Latinas and African-Americans give more credit to Hillary Clinton than whites (4% and 5% compared to 2%). White Southerners give more credit than African-Americans or Latinos and Latinas to the Navy Seal team (53% compared to 28% and 32%). White Southerners give more credit to former President George W. Bush than do African-Americans (5% compared to 3%). Hispanics give more credit to U.S. Intelligence agencies than do African-Americans or whites (24% compared to 21% and 15%).

Among Non-Southerners, African-Americans and Latinos and Latinas attribute bin Laden’s death more to Obama (45%, 33%, and 19%, respectively) and to Secretary of State Clinton (4%, 4%, and 2%) than do whites. Latinos and Latinas give more credit to former President Bush than do whites or African-Americans (4%, 3%, and 2%). Whites think the Navy Seal team deserves more credit (48%) than do African-Americans (27%) or Latinos and Latinas (30%). Similarly, whites and Latinos and Latinas believe the U.S. intelligence agencies contributed more to the death of bin Laden (24% and 22%) than do African-Americans (16%).

Figure 18: Racial Gap in Credit for Bin Laden’s Death by Region

How much credit do you give to each of the following people or groups for the death of Osama Bin Laden? Difference in means calculated as reflected in legend. N = 3606

Although few regional differences are seen collectively, there is a distinctive regional gap among whites (Figure 19). Whites outside the south give more credit to President Obama (19% compared to 15%) and U.S. Intelligence Agencies (24% compared to 21%) for Osama bin Laden’s death, while Southern whites give more credit to the Navy Seal team (53% versus 48%) and to former President Bush (5% versus 3%). Here again, argues Maxwell, “what has been labeled for years as ‘southern distinctiveness,’ should be more accurately called ‘white southern distinctiveness,’ as white attitudes are the primary contributor to the regional gaps still apparent in American politics.”

Only one regional difference emerges among Latinos and Latinas. Latinos and Latinas outside the south think Barack Obama deserves more credit than those living in Southern states (33% versus 26%).

Figure 19: Regional Gap in Credit for Bin Laden’s Death by Race/Ethnicity

How much credit do you give to each of the following people or groups for the death of Osama Bin Laden? Difference calculated as mean(Non-South) – mean(South). N = 3606

Responsibility for Student Debt

There can be no doubt that a college education is expensive. The U.S. Department of Education estimates that the annual cost of tuition, room, and board at a public 4-year institution was $15,606 in 2010; for private institutions, the number jumps to almost $32,000. To pay for higher education, Americans are taking on student loan debt; Americans now owe almost a trillion dollars in student loans. Who is responsible for this increase?

White, African-American, and Latino and Latina Americans largely blame colleges and universities (31%) and the federal government (30%) for the large amount of student debt. Smaller numbers blame students (18%) for assuming the debts and much smaller numbers attribute the blame to state governments (7%) and parents (4%).

Partisans think differently about student loan debt (Figure 20). 34% of Democrats – but only 29% of Republicans and 27% of Independents – blame colleges and universities. 35% of Republicans blame the federal government, while only 29% of independents and 26% attribute student loan debt to the federal government. 21% of Republicans believe students are to blame, a belief shared by 19% of independents and 15% of Democrats.

Figure 20: Student Loan Debt by Party Identification

Who do you think is primarily responsible for the increase in overallcollege student loan debt which has now reached almost a trillion dollars? Refusals not shown. N = 3606

Large socioeconomic differences emerge with respect for student loan debt (Figure 21). Respondents living in households with high annual incomes are more likely to attribute blame to colleges and universities (36%) than are respondents with lower household incomes. Respondents whose households have incomes under $25,000 a year are more likely to blame the federal government (33%).

Figure 21: Student Loan Debt by Household Income

Who do you think is primarily responsible for the increase in overallcollege student loan debt which has now reached almost a trillion dollars? Refusals not shown. N = 3606

Similarly, patterns for blame attribution emerge by education levels (Figure 22). Higher education is associated with more blame attributed to educational institutions (38% of respondents with a bachelor’s degree blame colleges, compared to only 18% of those who did not graduate high school). Lower education is associated with blaming the federal government (22% of those with at least a college degree compared to 35% of those without a high school diploma).

Figure 22: Student Loan Debt by Education

Who do you think is primarily responsible for the increase in overallcollege student loan debt which has now reached almost a trillion dollars? Refusals not shown. N = 3606

The student loan debt is seen as having different root causes by different racial and ethnic groups (Figure 23). One in three whites attribute blame for student debt on colleges and universities, while only 28% of African-Americans and 21% of Latinos and Latinas blame high learning institution. 33% of Latinos and Latinas, 30% of African-Americans, and 29% of whites think the federal government is to blame for student debt. African-Americans and Latinos and Latinas are more likely to blame state governments than are whites (11% and 12% compared to 5%). These racial differences are the same both within the South and Americans who live in non-Southern states. According to Dr. Dowe, “The differences reported are consistent with the fact that students of color are more likely to utilize federal programs such as Pell Grants, Work Study Programs and Stafford Loans to fund their college educations. During the spring of 2012 some policy advocates called for cutting these programs as well increasing the interest rates on Stafford Loans. Any policy change that would make it difficult to access federal grants increases the likelihood of increased loan debt by students of color.”

Figure 23: Student Loan Debt by Race/Ethnicity

Who do you think is primarily responsible for the increase in overallcollege student loan debt which has now reached almost a trillion dollars? Refusals not shown. N = 3606

Conclusion

This report has provided an initial glimpse into the findings of the Blair School/Clinton School Survey of 2012. The first findings have revealed that Americans are, by no means, unanimous in their thinking about the 2012 presidential race, Mitt Romney’s religion, student loan debt and credit for the death of bin Laden. Rather, differences emerge by gender, race, region, socioeconomic status, and the intersection of these characteristics.

It is important to once again note that these findings are just the first look into this survey’s findings. In the coming weeks and months, more detailed findings will be released about philanthropy, African Americans, Latinos, the South vs. non-South, the elderly, attitudes toward immigration and other important topics.

Appendix: Frequencies and Crosstabs

P14 Do you believe you will see a woman as the American president in your lifetime?
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid -1 Refused 87 2.4 2.4 2.4
1 Yes 2765 76.7 76.7 79.1
2 No 754 20.9 20.9 100.0
Total 3606 100.0 100.0

 

Q32 In the 2012 Presidential election, who did you vote for?
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid -1 Refused 39 1.1 1.6 1.6
1 Barack Obama 1291 35.8 50.9 52.5
2 Mitt Romney 1069 29.6 42.2 94.7
3 Other 105 2.9 4.2 98.8
4 Did not vote 30 .8 1.2 100.0
Total 2534 70.3 100.0
Missing System 1072 29.7
Total 3606 100.0

 

Q32 In the 2012 Presidential election, who did you vote for?
Gender Total
1 Male 2 Female
-1 Refused Count 20 19 39
% within Gender 1.7% 1.4% 1.5%
1 Barack Obama Count 540 750 1290
% within Gender 45.4% 55.7% 50.9%
2 Mitt Romney Count 545 524 1069
% within Gender 45.8% 38.9% 42.2%
3 Other Count 72 34 106
% within Gender 6.1% 2.5% 4.2%
4 Did not vote Count 12 19 31
% within Gender 1.0% 1.4% 1.2%
Total Count 1189 1346 2535
% within Gender 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

 

Q32 In the 2012 Presidential election, who did you vote for?
Party Identification Total
1 Democrat 2 Independent 3 Republican
-1 Refused Count 11 19 10 40
% within Party Identification 0.9% 5.6% 1.0% 1.6%
1 Barack Obama Count 1080 137 74 1291
% within Party Identification 92.3% 40.2% 7.2% 50.9%
2 Mitt Romney Count 46 122 901 1069
% within Party Identification 3.9% 35.8% 87.9% 42.2%
3 Other Count 25 51 29 105
% within Party Identification 2.1% 15.0% 2.8% 4.1%
4 Did not vote Count 8 12 11 31
% within Party Identification 0.7% 3.5% 1.1% 1.2%
Total Count 1170 341 1025 2536
% within Party Identification 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

 

Q32 In the 2012 Presidential election, who did you vote for?
Party Identification Gender Total
1 Male 2 Female
1 Democrat -1 Refused Count 4 7 11
% within Gender 0.8% 1.0% 0.9%
1 Barack Obama Count 443 637 1080
% within Gender 90.6% 93.5% 92.3%
2 Mitt Romney Count 16 30 46
% within Gender 3.3% 4.4% 3.9%
3 Other Count 22 3 25
% within Gender 4.5% 0.4% 2.1%
4 Did not vote Count 4 4 8
% within Gender 0.8% 0.6% 0.7%
Total Count 489 681 1170
% within Gender 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
2 Independent -1 Refused Count 9 10 19
% within Gender 5.0% 6.2% 5.6%
1 Barack Obama Count 79 58 137
% within Gender 43.6% 36.2% 40.2%
2 Mitt Romney Count 65 57 122
% within Gender 35.9% 35.6% 35.8%
3 Other Count 26 25 51
% within Gender 14.4% 15.6% 15.0%
4 Did not vote Count 2 10 12
% within Gender 1.1% 6.2% 3.5%
Total Count 181 160 341
% within Gender 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
3 Republican -1 Refused Count 8 2 10
% within Gender 1.5% 0.4% 1.0%
1 Barack Obama Count 18 56 74
% within Gender 3.5% 11.1% 7.2%
2 Mitt Romney Count 464 437 901
% within Gender 89.2% 86.4% 87.8%
3 Other Count 24 6 30
% within Gender 4.6% 1.2% 2.9%
4 Did not vote Count 6 5 11
% within Gender 1.2% 1.0% 1.1%
Total Count 520 506 1026
% within Gender 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

 

Q32 In the 2012 Presidential election, who did you vote for?
Race/Ethnicity Total
1 White 2 African-American 4 Latino/Latina
-1 Refused Count 18 13 9 40
% within Race/Ethnicity 1.5% 2.1% 1.6% 1.7%
1 Barack Obama Count 512 581 350 1443
% within Race/Ethnicity 41.8% 92.8% 62.8% 60.0%
2 Mitt Romney Count 631 13 147 791
% within Race/Ethnicity 51.6% 2.1% 26.4% 32.9%
3 Other Count 62 8 7 77
% within Race/Ethnicity 5.1% 1.3% 1.3% 3.2%
4 Did not vote Count 1 11 44 56
% within Race/Ethnicity 0.1% 1.8% 7.9% 2.3%
Total Count 1224 626 557 2407
% within Race/Ethnicity 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

 

Q32 In the 2012 Presidential election, who did you vote for?
Race/Ethnicity Gender Total
1 Male 2 Female
1 White -1 Refused Count 9 9 18
% within Gender 1.5% 1.4% 1.5%
1 Barack Obama Count 209 303 512
% within Gender 35.8% 47.2% 41.8%
2 Mitt Romney Count 321 310 631
% within Gender 55.1% 48.3% 51.5%
3 Other Count 43 20 63
% within Gender 7.4% 3.1% 5.1%
4 Did not vote Count 1 0 1
% within Gender 0.2% 0.0% 0.1%
Total Count 583 642 1225
% within Gender 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
2 African-American -1 Refused Count 7 6 13
% within Gender 2.6% 1.7% 2.1%
1 Barack Obama Count 250 331 581
% within Gender 92.3% 93.0% 92.7%
2 Mitt Romney Count 7 6 13
% within Gender 2.6% 1.7% 2.1%
3 Other Count 4 4 8
% within Gender 1.5% 1.1% 1.3%
4 Did not vote Count 3 9 12
% within Gender 1.1% 2.5% 1.9%
Total Count 271 356 627
% within Gender 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
4 Latino/Latina -1 Refused Count 5 5 10
% within Gender 1.9% 1.7% 1.8%
1 Barack Obama Count 155 195 350
% within Gender 59.8% 65.2% 62.7%
2 Mitt Romney Count 76 71 147
% within Gender 29.3% 23.7% 26.3%
3 Other Count 6 1 7
% within Gender 2.3% 0.3% 1.3%
4 Did not vote Count 17 27 44
% within Gender 6.6% 9.0% 7.9%
Total Count 259 299 558
% within Gender 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

 

Q32 In the 2012 Presidential election, who did you vote for?
Region Total
0 Non-South 1 South
-1 Refused Count 18 23 41
% within Region 1.4% 1.9% 1.6%
1 Barack Obama Count 671 597 1268
% within Region 52.2% 48.1% 50.2%
2 Mitt Romney Count 513 583 1096
% within Region 39.9% 47.0% 43.4%
3 Other Count 70 18 88
% within Region 5.4% 1.5% 3.5%
4 Did not vote Count 13 20 33
% within Region 1.0% 1.6% 1.3%
Total Count 1285 1241 2526
% within Region 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

 

Q32 In the 2012 Presidential election, who did you vote for?
Region Gender Total
1 Male 2 Female
0 Non-South -1 Refused Count 8 10 18
% within Gender 1.3% 1.5% 1.4%
1 Barack Obama Count 267 404 671
% within Gender 44.6% 58.9% 52.3%
2 Mitt Romney Count 271 242 513
% within Gender 45.3% 35.3% 40.0%
3 Other Count 47 22 69
% within Gender 7.9% 3.2% 5.4%
4 Did not vote Count 5 8 13
% within Gender 0.8% 1.2% 1.0%
Total Count 598 686 1284
% within Gender 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
1 South -1 Refused Count 14 9 23
% within Gender 2.4% 1.4% 1.9%
1 Barack Obama Count 279 318 597
% within Gender 47.2% 48.9% 48.1%
2 Mitt Romney Count 279 304 583
% within Gender 47.2% 46.8% 47.0%
3 Other Count 12 6 18
% within Gender 2.0% 0.9% 1.5%
4 Did not vote Count 7 13 20
% within Gender 1.2% 2.0% 1.6%
Total Count 591 650 1241
% within Gender 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

 

Q32 In the 2012 Presidential election, who did you vote for?
Race/Region Subgroups Total
1 White South 2 AA South 3 Latino/a South 4 White Non-South 5 AA Non-South 6 Latino/a Non-South
-1 Refused Count 12 4 5 8 9 5 43
% within Race/Region Subgroups 2.0% 1.3% 1.7% 1.3% 2.8% 1.8% 1.8%
1 Barack Obama Count 186 292 171 286 288 176 1399
% within Race/Region Subgroups 31.5% 94.5% 59.2% 45.8% 91.1% 64.7% 58.3%
2 Mitt Romney Count 381 7 83 290 6 68 835
% within Race/Region Subgroups 64.5% 2.3% 28.7% 46.5% 1.9% 25.0% 34.8%
3 Other Count 10 0 7 40 8 2 67
% within Race/Region Subgroups 1.7% 0.0% 2.4% 6.4% 2.5% 0.7% 2.8%
4 Did not vote Count 2 6 23 0 5 21 57
% within Race/Region Subgroups 0.3% 1.9% 8.0% 0.0% 1.6% 7.7% 2.4%
Total Count 591 309 289 624 316 272 2401
% within Race/Region Subgroups 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

 

P11 Do you believe that Mitt Romney is a Christian?
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid -1 Refused 61 1.7 1.7 1.7
1 Yes 1333 37.0 37.0 38.7
2 No 850 23.6 23.6 62.2
3 I Don’t know 1362 37.8 37.8 100.0
Total 3606 100.0 100.0

 

P11 Do you believe that Mitt Romney is a Christian?
Gender Total
1 Male 2 Female
-1 Refused Count 32 29 61
% within Gender 1.8% 1.6% 1.7%
1 Yes Count 691 642 1333
% within Gender 39.7% 34.4% 37.0%
2 No Count 440 411 851
% within Gender 25.3% 22.0% 23.6%
3 I Don’t know Count 578 783 1361
% within Gender 33.2% 42.0% 37.7%
Total Count 1741 1865 3606
% within Gender 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

 

P11 Do you believe that Mitt Romney is a Christian?
Party Identification Total
1 Democrat 2 Independent 3 Republican
-1 Refused Count 11 40 10 61
% within Party Identification 0.7% 5.3% 0.8% 1.7%
1 Yes Count 460 193 680 1333
% within Party Identification 28.4% 25.7% 55.2% 37.0%
2 No Count 441 171 238 850
% within Party Identification 27.2% 22.7% 19.3% 23.6%
3 I Don’t know Count 709 348 304 1361
% within Party Identification 43.7% 46.3% 24.7% 37.8%
Total Count 1621 752 1232 3605
% within Party Identification 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

 

P11 Do you believe that Mitt Romney is a Christian?
Income Groups Total
1 <$25K 2 $25-49K 3 $50-74K 4 $75K+
-1 Refused Count 14 17 8 22 61
% within Income Groups 1.7% 1.9% 1.2% 1.8% 1.7%
1 Yes Count 158 300 280 594 1332
% within Income Groups 19.7% 33.5% 42.4% 47.6% 36.9%
2 No Count 207 206 146 292 851
% within Income Groups 25.8% 23.0% 22.1% 23.4% 23.6%
3 I don’t know Count 422 373 227 339 1361
% within Income Groups 52.7% 41.6% 34.3% 27.2% 37.8%
Total Count 801 896 661 1247 3605
% within Income Groups 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

 

P11 Do you believe that Mitt Romney is a Christian?
Education (Categorical) Total
1 Less than high school 2 High school 3 Some College 4 Bachelor’s degree or higher
-1 Refused Count 18 14 20 10 62
% within Education (Categorical) 4.1% 1.3% 1.9% 1.0% 1.7%
1 Yes Count 76 377 370 510 1333
% within Education (Categorical) 17.3% 34.0% 35.3% 50.3% 36.9%
2 No Count 114 246 252 239 851
% within Education (Categorical) 26.0% 22.2% 24.1% 23.6% 23.6%
3 I don’t know Count 231 471 405 255 1362
% within Education (Categorical) 52.6% 42.5% 38.7% 25.1% 37.7%
Total Count 439 1108 1047 1014 3608
% within Income Groups 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

 

P11 Do you believe that Mitt Romney is a Christian?
Race/Ethnicity Total
1 White 2 African-American 4 Latino/Latina
-1 Refused Count 24 20 26 70
% within Race/Ethnicity 1.5% 2.4% 2.3% 1.9%
1 Yes Count 739 124 216 1079
% within Race/Ethnicity 44.7% 14.7% 19.5% 29.9%
2 No Count 331 307 329 967
% within Race/Ethnicity 20.0% 36.4% 29.6% 26.8%
3 I Don’t know Count 559 393 539 1491
% within Race/Ethnicity 33.8% 46.6% 48.6% 41.3%
Total Count 1653 844 1110 3607
% within Race/Ethnicity 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

 

Q32 In the 2012 Presidential election, who did you vote for?
P11 Do you believe that Mitt Romney is a Christian? Total
-1 Refused 1 Yes 2 No 3 I Don’t know
-1 Refused Count 3 12 6 19 40
% within P11 12.5% 1.1% 1.0% 2.3% 1.6%
1 Barack Obama Count 13 395 366 517 1291
% within P11 54.2% 36.0% 61.2% 63.2% 50.9%
2 Mitt Romney Count 8 662 191 208 1069
% within P11 33.3% 60.4% 31.9% 25.4% 42.2%
3 Other Count 0 25 33 47 105
% within P11 0.0% 2.3% 5.5% 5.7% 4.1%
4 Did not vote Count 0 2 2 27 31
% within P11 0.0% 0.2% 0.3% 3.3% 1.2%
Total Count 24 1096 598 818 2536
% within P11 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

 

P17 How much credit do you give to each of the following people or groups for the death of Osama Bin Laden?
Mean
Statistic Std. Error
P17_A [Barack Obama] 23.13 .455
P17_B [Mitt Romney] .77 .083
P17_C [Navy Seal Team] 43.78 .512
P17_D [Hillary Clinton] 2.45 .109
P17_E [George W. Bush] 3.97 .186
P17_F [U.S. Intelligence Agencies] 21.94 .358
P17_G [Another individual or group] 3.06 .219
Valid N (listwise)

 

P17 How much credit do you give to each of the following people or groups for the death of Osama Bin Laden?
Mean
Race / Ethnicity P17_A [Barack Obama] P17_B [Mitt Romney] P17_C [Navy Seal Team] P17_D [Hillary Clinton] P17_E [George W. Bush] P17_F [U.S. Intelligence Agencies] P17_G [Another individual or group]
1 White 17.79 .39 49.44 1.68 4.06 22.80 2.95
2 African-American 45.11 1.22 27.12 4.96 2.44 15.59 2.67
4 Latino/Latina 30.56 2.24 30.55 4.02 4.78 22.97 3.90
Total 28.00 1.14 38.56 3.15 3.90 21.17 3.17

 

P17 How much credit do you give to each of the following people or groups for the death of Osama Bin Laden?
Mean
Region P17_A [Barack Obama] P17_B [Mitt Romney] P17_C [Navy Seal Team] P17_D [Hillary Clinton] P17_E [George W. Bush] P17_F [U.S. Intelligence Agencies] P17_G [Another individual or group]
0 Non-South 23.39 .61 43.27 2.34 3.51 22.69 3.27
1 South 22.59 1.11 44.84 2.68 4.93 20.37 2.63
Total 22.99 .86 44.05 2.51 4.22 21.54 2.95

 

P17 How much credit do you give to each of the following people or groups for the death of Osama Bin Laden?
Mean
Race/Region P17_A [Barack Obama] P17_B [Mitt Romney] P17_C [Navy Seal Team] P17_D [Hillary Clinton] P17_E [George W. Bush] P17_F [U.S. Intelligence Agencies] P17_G [Another individual or group]
1 White South 15.03 .53 53.33 1.64 5.42 20.92 2.50
2 AA South 44.83 1.45 27.51 5.44 2.61 14.94 1.97
3 Latino/a South 26.32 2.94 31.96 3.52 5.68 24.42 3.86
4 White Non-South 18.91 .33 47.87 1.70 3.51 23.57 3.13
5 AA Non-South 45.38 .99 26.73 4.47 2.27 16.23 3.37
6 Latino/a Non-South 32.87 1.85 29.78 4.29 4.29 22.18 3.92
Total 27.32 1.21 39.18 3.10 4.15 21.03 3.11

 

P10 Who do you think is primarily responsible for the increase in overallcollege student loan debt which has now reached almost a trillion dollars?
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid -1 Refused 87 2.4 2.4 2.4
1 Students 647 17.9 17.9 20.3
2 Parents 138 3.8 3.8 24.2
3 The college or university 1113 30.9 30.9 55.0
4 State Government 242 6.7 6.7 61.7
5 Federal Government 1064 29.5 29.5 91.3
6 Other 315 8.7 8.7 100.0
Total 3606 100.0 100.0

 

P10 Who do you think is primarily responsible for the increase in overallcollege student loan debt which has now reached almost a trillion dollars?
Party Identification Total
1 Democrat 2 Independent 3 Republican
-1 Refused Count 25 45 17 87
% within Party Identification 1.5% 6.0% 1.4% 2.4%
1 Students Count 249 145 252 646
% within Party Identification 15.4% 19.3% 20.5% 17.9%
2 Parents Count 55 30 53 138
% within Party Identification 3.4% 4.0% 4.3% 3.8%
3 The college or university Count 550 205 358 1113
% within Party Identification 33.9% 27.3% 29.1% 30.9%
4 State Government Count 147 48 46 241
% within Party Identification 9.1% 6.4% 3.7% 6.7%
5 Federal Government Count 415 214 434 1063
% within Party Identification 25.6% 28.5% 35.3% 29.5%
6 Other Count 180 64 71 315
% within Party Identification 11.1% 8.5% 5.8% 8.7%
Total Count 1621 751 1231 3603
% within Party Identification 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

 

P10 Who do you think is primarily responsible for the increase in overallcollege student loan debt which has now reached almost a trillion dollars?
Income Groups Total
1 <$25K 2 $25-49K 3 $50-74K 4 $75K+
-1 Refused Count 33 21 10 23 87
% within Income Groups 4.1% 2.3% 1.5% 1.8% 2.4%
1 Students Count 139 151 131 227 648
% within Income Groups 17.3% 16.8% 19.8% 18.2% 18.0%
2 Parents Count 37 27 26 49 139
% within Income Groups 4.6% 3.0% 3.9% 3.9% 3.9%
3 The college or university Count 177 272 216 448 1113
% within Income Groups 22.1% 30.3% 32.7% 35.9% 30.8%
4 State Government Count 69 70 34 69 242
% within Income Groups 8.6% 7.8% 5.1% 5.5% 6.7%
5 Federal Government Count 265 275 193 330 1063
% within Income Groups 33.0% 30.6% 29.2% 26.5% 29.5%
6 Other Count 82 82 51 101 316
% within Income Groups 10.2% 9.1% 7.7% 8.1% 8.8%
Total Count 802 898 661 1247 3608
% within Income Groups 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

 

P10 Who do you think is primarily responsible for the increase in overallcollege student loan debt which has now reached almost a trillion dollars?
Education (Categorical) Total
1 Less than high school 2 High school 3 Some College 4 Bachelor’s degree or higher
-1 Refused Count 33 19 25 10 87
% within Education (Categorical) 7.5% 1.7% 2.4% 1.0% 2.4%
1 Students Count 67 221 190 170 648
% within Education (Categorical) 15.3% 20.0% 18.1% 16.8% 18.0%
2 Parents Count 25 40 27 45 137
% within Education (Categorical) 5.7% 3.6% 2.6% 4.4% 3.8%
3 The college or university Count 80 314 335 385 1114
% within Education (Categorical) 18.3% 28.4% 32.0% 38.0% 30.9%
4 State Government Count 39 85 57 59 240
% within Education (Categorical) 8.9% 7.7% 5.4% 5.8% 6.7%
5 Federal Government Count 154 361 324 225 1064
% within Education (Categorical) 35.2% 32.6% 30.9% 22.2% 29.5%
6 Other Count 40 67 89 120 316
% within Education (Categorical) 9.1% 6.1% 8.5% 11.8% 8.8%
Total Count 438 1107 1047 1014 3606
% within Education (Categorical) 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

 

P10 Who do you think is primarily responsible for the increase in overallcollege student loan debt which has now reached almost a trillion dollars?
Race/Ethnicity Total
1 White 2 African-American 4 Latino/Latina
-1 Refused Count 29 25 55 109
% within Race/Ethnicity 1.8% 3.0% 5.0% 3.0%
1 Students Count 319 132 150 601
% within Race/Ethnicity 19.3% 15.7% 13.5% 16.7%
2 Parents Count 58 27 64 149
% within Race/Ethnicity 3.5% 3.2% 5.8% 4.1%
3 The college or university Count 557 233 229 1019
% within Race/Ethnicity 33.7% 27.7% 20.6% 28.3%
4 State Government Count 81 92 128 301
% within Race/Ethnicity 4.9% 10.9% 11.5% 8.3%
5 Federal Government Count 475 252 362 1089
% within Race/Ethnicity 28.8% 29.9% 32.6% 30.2%
6 Other Count 133 81 123 337
% within Race/Ethnicity 8.1% 9.6% 11.1% 9.3%
Total Count 1652 842 1111 3605
% within Race/Ethnicity 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%